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আবার ও খেটে খাওয়া দিন মজুরদের পাশে ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের সদস্যরা।

আবার ও খেটে খাওয়া দিন মজুরদের পাশে ত্রিরত্ন সংঘেরর সদস্যরা।

আবার ও খেটে খাওয়া দিন মজুরদের পাশে দাঁড়ালো বৌদ্ধদের সুপরিচিত সংগঠন ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।বিশ্ব মহামারি করোনা থেকে রক্ষা পেতে গত ২৬/০৩/২০২০ থেকে ০৪/০৪/২০২০ পর্যন্ত সরকার সারা দেশে সাধারণ ছুটি ঘোষণা করে।এর পর ২৬/০৩/২০২০ অর্ধশত দিন মজুরদের হাতে কিছু খাদ্য সামগ্রী তুলে দেয়।

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খেটে খাওয়া দরিদ্র অসহায় মানুষের পাশে….. ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।

খেটে খাওয়া দরিদ্র অসহায় মানুষের পাশে….. ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।

দেশ ও দেশের বাহিরে সুপরিচিত সংগঠন ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ খেটে খাওয়া দরিদ্র অসহায় মানুষের পাশে নিত্য প্রয়োজনীয় খাবার ও সচেতনমূলক সামগ্রী বিতরণ করেছেন।

গত ২৬/০৩/২০২০ তারিখ থেকে আগামী ০৪/০৪/২০২০ সারাদেশে সাধারণ ছুটি ঘোষণা করেছে সরকার। বিশ্বব্যাপী ছড়িয়ে পড়া মহামারী করোনা কেবিড- 19 এর আক্রমণে সারাবিশ্ব প্রায় সব দেশ অচল হয়ে পড়েছে।এই মহামারী ঠেকাতে দেশে ১০ দিনের ছুটি ঘোষণা করেছে সরকার।

এতে অসহায় হয়ে পড়েছে দিনমজুর অথ্যাৎ দিনে এনে দিনে খাওয়া মানুষ।তাদের এই দূ-সময়ের কথা চিন্তা করে ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ এই সিদ্ধান্ত নেয়।ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের ডাকে সারা দিয়ে এগিয়ে এসেছেন ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ এর অসংখ্য শুভাকাঙ্ক্ষী। তাদের ও ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ এর সদস্যদের সহযোগীতায় কাজ প্রথম ধাপে অর্ধশতাদিক অসহায় মানুষকে পাশে দাঁড়াতে সক্ষম হয়।

দেশের পরিস্থিতির কারণে উপস্থিত ছিলেন শুধু মাত্র সংঘের নব নির্বাচিত সভাপতি সুমন বড়ুয়া কমল,সহ- সাধারণ সম্পাদক সজীব বড়ুয়া,সাংগঠনিক সম্পাদক সীমান্ত বড়ুয়া, বিজ্ঞান ও প্রযুক্তি সম্পাদক হৃদয় বড়ুয়া অংশ গ্রহণ করে। বাকি সদস্যরা আসতে চাইলে দেশের পরিস্থিতির কারণে তাদের আসতে বারণ করা হয়।তবে সার্বক্ষণিক তারা ফোনে খবর রাখেন।ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের প্রতিষ্টাতা ও প্রাপ্তন সফল সভাপতি অভি বড়ুয়া অর্ণব ভিডিও কলের মাধ্যমে সব কিছু মনিটরিং করে।

অসহায় মানুষগুলো যখন ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের কাছ থেকে কিছু খাদ্য সামগ্রী ও সচেতনমূলক সামগ্রী পেয়ে অনেক আনন্দিত। তারা ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের সকলকে ধন্যবাদ ও দোয়া করেন। সত্যিই এমন কিছু কিছু উদ্যাগে আছে যেটাতে মানুষ অল্পতে খুশি হয়।এমন দূর্দিনে যে তারা ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ থেকে কিছু সাহায্য সহযোগিতা পেয়েছে তা সত্যিই অতুলনীয়।

হত দরিদ্র মানুষকে বিতরণ শেষে বিহার পরিষ্কার ও ভিক্ষু শ্রমণদের নিরাপত্তা জন্য বিভিন্ন স্থান ও আসবাবপত্রে জীবাণু নাশক ঔষধ স্প্রে করে।উক্ত কার্যক্রমে সংঘের উপদেষ্টা শ্রদ্ধেয় ভান্তে উপানন্দ মহাথের দিক নির্দেশনা প্রদান করেন।

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বিশ্বশান্তি কামনায় সমবেত প্রার্থনা ও জাতির জনক বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মুজিবুর রহমানের জন্ম শতবার্ষিকী উপলক্ষে প্রদীপ প্রজ্বলন –ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।।

বিশ্বশান্তি কামনায় সমবেত প্রার্থনা ও জাতির জনক বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মুজিবুর রহমানের জন্ম শতবার্ষিকী উপলক্ষে প্রদীপ প্রজ্বলন –ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।।

গতকাল ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের উদ্যোগে বিশ্বশান্তি কামনায় সমবেত প্রার্থনা, মহামঙ্গল সূত্র,রতন সূত্র, পঞ্চশীল প্রার্থনা ও জল ঢেলে পূন্যদান করা হয় বিশ্বের সমগ্র মানবজাতি তথা সকল প্রাণীর মঙ্গলার্থ। সমবেত প্রার্থনার শেষে জাতির জনক বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মজিবুর রহমানের জন্ম শতবার্ষিকী উপলক্ষে ১০০ (একশত) প্রদীপ প্রজ্জ্বলন করা হয়।

কাতালগঞ্জ নবপন্ডিত বৌদ্ধ বিহারে আয়োজিত এ কর্মসূচিতে বিহারধ্যক্ষ এবং ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের উপদেষ্টা শ্রদ্ধেয় উপানন্দ‌ মহাথের সহ উপস্থিত ভিক্ষুসংঘ সূত্রপাঠ করেন। এসময়ে জাতির জনক বঙ্গবন্ধু শেখ মুজিবুর রহমানের জন্ম শতবার্ষিকীর প্রদীপ প্রজ্বলন কর্মসূচি উদ্বোধন করেন ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের উপদেষ্টা শ্রদ্ধেয় উপানন্দ‌ মহাথের ও একুশে পদক বিজয়ী বৌদ্ধ‌ নেতৃত্ব এবং ত্রিরত্ন‌ সংঘের উপদেষ্টা ড.‌বিকিরণ প্রসাদ বড়ুয়া।

ড.বিকিরণ প্রসাদ বড়ুয়া বলেন সাম্প্রতিক সময়ের সবচেয়ে দ্রুত গতিতে ছড়িয়ে পড়া বৈশ্বিক মহামারী নভেল করোনা ভাইরাস। এতে আক্রান্ত এশিয়া,চীন, জাপান,ইউরোপ, আমেরিকা, মিডেল ইষ্ট সহ বিশ্বের বিভিন্ন দেশ। তিনি সবাইকে সর্তকতার সহিত চলাফেরা ও বিভিন্ন উপদেশ প্রদান করেন।

ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের প্রবাসী সদস্য, শুভাকাঙ্ক্ষী ও সকল পৃথিবীর মানুষের উদ্দেশ্যে করোনা ভাইরাস থেকে রক্ষা পেতে সমবেত প্রার্থনার আয়োজন করেছে ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।আমরা আমাদের প্রবাসী সদস্যদের পাশে আছি সব সময়। মানবতার সেবক হয়ে।

সংগঠনের সভাপতি সুমন বড়ুয়া কমল ও সাধারণ সম্পাদক প্রকৌশলী জয়তু বড়ুয়ার নেতৃত্বে সংগঠনের সদস্যবৃন্দসহ উপস্থিত উপসক-উপসিকা সহ সকলে মানবজাতির মুক্তি কামনায় সমবেত প্রার্থনা করেন ও আক্রান্ত সকলের রোগমুক্তি কামনা পূন্যদান করেন।

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নতুন কমিটির প্রথম উদ্যোগ মানবতার জন্য– ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।।

 

ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের নতুন কমিটির প্রথম উদ্যোগ মানবতার জন্য।

মেয়ে ও তার পরিবারের সুনামের স্বার্থে পরিচয় গোপন করা হল। মেয়েটির বাবা যায় তিন বছর আগে পরলোকমন করেন। দুই বোন আর মায়ের অভাবের সংসারে কোন রকমে বড় হয়।মোটামোটি স্নাতকোত্তর পাশ করে।হঠাৎ করে বিয়ের পাকা কথা ও হয়ে যায়। কিন্তু বিয়ে মানে তো অনেক টাকার ব্যাপার। তাই অসহায় মা ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের সদস্যদের কাছে তার মেয়ের বিয়ের জন্য আবেদন করেন।

খুব স্বল্প সময়ে সংগঠনের সদস্যরা, শুভানুধ্যায়ীরা যেভাবে সাড়া দিয়েছেন তার জন্য আমরা কৃতজ্ঞতা প্রকাশ করছি । দুঃস্থ অসহায় পিতৃহারা মেয়েটির বিবাহে আর্থিক সহযোগিতার জন্য তার মা আকুল আবেদন জানিয়েছিলেন।

মাত্র ২৪ ঘন্টার ব্যবধানে তার জন্য ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের উদ্যোগে ১১,৬০০/= (এগার হাজার ছয়শত) টাকা সংগ্রহ করা হয়।গতকাল ১১/৩/২০২০ইং সন্ধ্যায় ৭:০০ টায় কাতালগঞ্জ নবপন্ডিত বিহারে‌ বিহারধ্যক্ষ ও সংগঠনের উপদেষ্টা শ্রদ্ধেয় উপানন্দ‌ মহাথের’র উপস্থিতিতে এ আর্থিক সহযোগিতা তুলে দেওয়া হলো।

আর্থিক সহযোগিতা তুলে দেওয়ার পরে মেয়েটির মায়ের সাথে দীর্ঘক্ষণ কথা বলে তাদের পরিবারের খোঁজখবর নেওয়া হয়। মেয়েটির মা সংঘের সকল সদস্য/সদস্যাদের ও যারা আর্থিক সহযোগিতায় এগিয়ে এসেছেন তাদের ও তাদের পরিবারের সুখ, শান্তি ও সমৃদ্ধি কামনা করে পূন্যদান করেন।

এসময় উপস্থিত ছিলেন ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের নবনির্বাচিত কমিটির অর্থ সম্পাদক বাবু সুশান্ত বড়ুয়া ,সহ -সাংগঠনিক সম্পাদক অনিন্দ্য বড়ুয়া, প্রচার সম্পাদক দেবু বড়ুয়া ও মহিলা সম্পাদিকা অবন্তিকা বড়ুয়া প্রমুখ।

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বান্দরবানের দুর্গম এলাকায় ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের উদ্যোগে দানকৃত বুদ্ধপ্রতিবিম্বের বুদ্ধ অভিষেক —ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।।

বান্দরবানের দুর্গম এলাকায় ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের উদ্যোগে দানকৃত বুদ্ধপ্রতিবিম্বের বুদ্ধ অভিষেক —ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।।

বাংলাদেশ সহ বহিঃবিশ্বে সকলের কাছে সুপরিচিত সংগঠন ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের উদ্যোগে বান্দরবান জেলার বালাঘাটার দুর্গম পাহাড়ি এলাকার মনোরম পরিবেশের ক্যায়াং কাট্টলী পাড়া বৌদ্ধ বিহারে দানকৃত বুদ্ধপ্রতিবিম্বের অভিষেক অনুষ্ঠান অনুষ্ঠিত হয়।
মারমা সম্প্রদায়ের এই বৌদ্ধ বিহারের বুদ্ধ অভিষেক অনুষ্ঠানে প্রধান অতিথি হিসেবে উপস্থিত ছিলেন মারমাদের বড় ভান্তে কউইদ্যা মহাথের সহ ১৮জন ভিক্ষুসংঘ। উক্ত অনুষ্ঠানে বিশেষ অতিথি হিসেবে উপস্থিত ছিলেন সংঘের পৃষ্ঠপোষক ব্যাংকার দুলাল কান্তি বড়ুয়া, সংঘের সভাপতি অভি বড়ুয়া(অর্ণব), সহ সাধারণ সম্পাদক বিকাশ বড়ুয়া,সংঘের কার্যকরী সদস্য সুশান্ত বড়ুয়া,সদস্য শুভ কৌশিক বড়ুয়া,শিকর বড়ুয়া ও সুমেদ বড়ুয়া।
এছাড়াও এই পূন্যময় অনুষ্ঠানে বক্তব্য রাখেন কাট্টলী পাড়া বৌদ্ধ বিহারের সভাপতি কারবারি ছোবুশে মারমা,সাধারণ সম্পাদক চথোয়াই মং মারমা, মেম্বার পুকোয়াই মং মারমা,উক্য ওয়াই মারমা ও ক্যহ্লা চিং মারমা। অনুষ্ঠানের সভাপতিত্ব করেন বিহারের বিহার অধ্যক্ষ শ্রদ্ধেয় উ আয়ারা মহাথের ভান্তে। অনুষ্ঠানের সঞ্চালনায় ছিলেন  অশ্বজীৎ শ্রমণ।।

এই পুন্যময় অনুষ্ঠানে দূরদূরান্ত থেকে উপাসক উপাসিকা উপস্থিত হয়ে পূন্যময় অনুষ্ঠানে অংশগ্রহণ করে। ভিক্ষু সংঘ বুদ্ধ অভিষেক অনুষ্ঠান শেষে পুন্যরাশি সকল প্রাণীর সুখ শান্তি ও দীর্ঘায়ু কামনায় দান করে।
কাট্টলী পাড়া বৌদ্ধ বিহারের বিহার কমিটি ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের কাছে একটি বুদ্ধপ্রতিবিম্ব এর জন্য আবেদন করলে সংঘের সাধারণ সভায় বুদ্ধপ্রতিবিম্বটি দানের উদ্যোগে গ্রহণ করা হয়। সংঘের সহ সাধারণ সম্পাদক বিকাশ বড়ুয়া অর্থায়নে বুদ্ধপ্রতিবিম্বটি দান করা হয় কাট্টলী পাড়া বৌদ্ধ বিহারে। ৬ফুটের সুদর্শনীয় এই বুদ্ধপ্রতিবিম্বটি দেখে কাট্টলী পাড়ার গ্রামবাসীরা অনেক প্রশান্তি লাভ করে। তারা এতোই আনন্দিত হয় যে বুদ্ধপ্রতিবিম্বের অভিষেক অনুষ্ঠান অনেক বড় করে নানা আয়োজনের মাধ্যদিয়ে করার উদ্যোগ নেয়।

বুদ্ধ অভিষেক অনুষ্ঠানের পাশেপাশি ছিলো বুদ্ধ ধাতু পূজা,বুদ্ধ পুষ্প পুজা, ভিক্ষু সংঘকে পিন্ডদান সহ পাঁচশতের অধিক অতিথি আপ্যায়নের ব্যবস্থা। অনুষ্ঠানকে কেন্দ্র করে গ্রাম বাসিরা বিহার ও বিহার প্রাঙ্গণকে ধর্মীয় পতাকা ও নানা রঙ্গিন কাগজ দিয়ে সাজিয়েছে।

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এক যুগপূর্তি, কৃতিশিক্ষার্থী সংবর্ধনা, শিশু ত্র্যাওয়ার্ড চিত্রাঙ্কন প্রতিযোগিতা,আজীবন সদস্য সম্মাননা,বর্ষসেরা সদস্য নির্বাচন ও পুরস্কার বিতরণ সম্পন্ন —–ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।।

এক যুগপূর্তি, কৃতিশিক্ষার্থী সংবর্ধনা, শিশু ত্র্যাওয়ার্ড চিত্রাঙ্কন প্রতিযোগিতা,আজীবন সদস্য সম্মাননা,বর্ষসেরা সদস্য নির্বাচন ও পুরস্কার বিতরণ সম্পন্ন —–ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ।। (more…)

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হাজার প্রদীপ প্রজ্জ্বলন ২০২০–ত্রিরত্ন সংঘ

নতুন বছরটা শুরু হয় যদি নতুন কিছু দিয়ে। যদি শুরু করা যায় কোন পূন্য কাজ দিয়ে তাহলে কেমন হয়!!

২০১৯ সালের সকল গ্লানি,জড়তা মুছে, নতুন বছর অথ্যাৎ “২০২০” ১লা জানুয়ারিকে স্বাগতম জানাতে ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের মেয়ে সদস্যারা আয়োজন করেছে হাজার প্রদীপ প্রজ্জ্বলন ও সমবেত প্রার্থনা।হাজার প্রদীপের আলোয় আলোকিত হোক বিশ্বের সকল মানুষের হৃদয়।

ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের মেয়ে সদস্যাদের উদ্যোগে গত ০১/০১/২০২০ ইং রোজ বুধবার সন্ধ্যা ৬:০০ টায় “পূর্ণাচার আন্তর্জাতিক বৌদ্ধ বিহার “প্রাঙ্গণে সমবেত প্রার্থনা ও হাজার প্রদীপ প্রজ্জ্বলনের আয়োজন করা হয়েছে।।সেই সময় উপস্থিত ছিলেন পূর্ণাচার আন্তজাতিক বৌদ্ধ বিহারের উপাধ্যক্ষ ও অধ্যক্ষ সহ অন্যান্যা পূজনীয় ভিক্ষু সংঘসহ উপসক-উপসিকাগন।
ত্রিরত্ন সংঘের হাজার প্রদীপ প্রজ্জ্বলনে প্রতিপাদ্য বিষয় ছিল কোন বৌদ্ধ ছেলে মেয়েরা যেন ধর্মান্তরিত না হয়।
ছেলে মেয়েদের ধর্মান্তর রোধ করতে বিহার মুখী করুন।।

হাজার প্রদীপ প্রজ্জ্বলন শেষে সবাই সমবেত প্রার্থনা করে বিশ্বের সকল প্রাণীর মঙ্গল কামনা করা হয়।
জগতের সকল প্রাণী সুখী হোক।।

আমরাই আগামী দিনের পথ প্রর্দশক,
আমরা করব জয়।।

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WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE DIE? HERE’S WHAT BUDDHISM SAYS!

WHAT HAPPENS WHEN WE DIE? HERE’S WHAT BUDDHISM SAYS!

 

The Buddha’s teachings offers the most satisfactory explanation of where man came from and where he is going. When we die, the mind, with all the tendencies, preferences, abilities and characteristics that have been developed and conditioned in this life, re-establishes itself in a new being. Thus the new individual grows and develops a personality conditioned both by the mental characteristics that have been carried over from the previous life and by the new environment. The personality will change and be modified by conscious effort and conditioning factors like education, parental influence and society but once again at death, it will re-establish itself as life in a new being. This process of dying and being reborn will continue until the conditions that cause it, the mental factors of craving and ignorance, cease. When they do, instead of being reborn, the mind attains a state called Nirvana.
HOW DOES THE MIND GO FROM ONE BODY TO ANOTHER?
When a person is dying, he begins to lose conscious control of his mental processes. There comes a time when his actions and habits locked away in his memories are released. In many instances, there arises in his mind a mental image. This image is totally involuntarily and is produced by his karma or past actions. Thus depending upon the nature of the particular karma that produces this image, the person may see dark shadowy figures, frightening images, or he may see his relatives or perhaps visions of scenic beauty. Quite often, he will cry out at these visions or remark about them to his visitors. Even though the physical body may be weak these thought units are very strong as death approaches. When the body finally breaks down at the point of death these energies are released as mental energy. As energy cannot be destroyed they have to re-establish themselves in a new body thus causing the phenomenon of rebirth.
Think of it being like radio waves which are not made up of words and music but energy at different frequencies, which are transmitted, travel instantaneously through space, are picked up by the receiver from where the radio produces them as words and music. It is the same with the mind. At death, mental energy travels through space, is picked up by the fertilized egg of the future mother, is reborn as a new being and manifests as a new personality.
Thus it is important that a dying person is comforted and reminded of his good deeds. He should not be made confused and visitors should not overtly grieve in his presence. Neither should unfamiliar ideas like a new religion be introduced to him. The Buddha advises that when one is fearful, he should recall to mind the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha.
IS ONE ALWAYS REBORN AS A HUMAN BEING?
No, there are several realms into which one can be reborn. Some people are reborn in heavenly planes, some are reborn in hell planes, some may be reborn as ghosts and as animals. Heaven is not a place but a state of existence where one has a subtle body and where the mind experiences mainly pleasure. Some religions strive very hard to be reborn in a heavenly existence mistakenly believing it to be a permanent state. But it is not. Like all conditioned states, heaven is impermanent and when one’s life span there is finished, one could well be reborn again as a human. Hell, likewise, is not a place but a state of existence where one has a subtle body and where the mind experiences mainly anxiety and distress. Being a ghost, again, is a state of existence where the body is subtle and where the mind is continually plagued by longing and dissatisfaction. So heavenly beings experience mainly pleasure, hell beings and ghosts experience mainly pain and human beings experience usually a mixture of both. So the main difference between the human realm and other realms is the body type and the quality of experience.
“Those who imagine evil where there is none, and do not see evil where it is — upholding false views, they go to states of woe. Those who discern the wrong as wrong and the right as right — upholding right views, they go to realms of bliss. ~ Dhammapada 318, 319”
WHAT DECIDES WHERE WE WILL BE REBORN?
The most important factor, but not the only one, influencing where we will be reborn and what sort of life we shall have, is karma. The word karma means ‘action’ and refers to our intentional mental actions. In other words, what we are is determined very much by how we have thought and acted in the past. Likewise, how we think and act now will influence how we will be in the future. Just as radio waves will be picked up by a radio tuned to its particular frequency, the mental energies released at the time of death will naturally be re-established in a new material body that most suits it. Thus, the gentle, loving type of person shall be reborn in a heavenly realm or as a human being in a comfortable environment. The anxious, worried or extremely cruel type of person is reborn in a hell realm, or as an animal, or as a human being born in extremely difficult environment.
Not only is there scientific evidence to support the phenomena of rebirth, it is the only after-life theory that has any evidence to support it. During the last 30 years parapsychologists have been studying reports that some people have vivid memories of their former lives. Professor Ian Stevenson of the University of Virginia’s Department of Psychology has described dozens of cases of this type in his books. He is an accredited scientist whose 25 year study of people who remember former lives is very strong evidence for rebirth.
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WHY GAUTAMA BUDDHA SAID EVERY MAN AND WOMAN HAS 4 WIVES OR HUSBANDS

WHY GAUTAMA BUDDHA SAID EVERY MAN AND WOMAN HAS 4 WIVES OR HUSBANDS

Once there was a man who had four wives. According to the social system and circumstances of ancient India, it was possible for a man to have several wives. Also, during the Heian period in Japan, about a thousand years ago, it was not unusual for a woman to have several husbands. The Indian had become ill and was about to die. At the end of his life, he felt very lonely and so asked the first wife to accompany him to the other world.
‘My dear wife,’ he said, ‘I loved you day and night, I took care of you throughout my whole life. Now I am about to die, will you please go with me wherever I go after my death?’
He expected her to answer yes. But she answered, ‘My dear husband, I know you always loved me. And you are going to die. Now it is time to separate from you. Goodbye, my dear.’
He called his second wife to his sickbed and begged her to follow him in death. He said, ‘My dear second wife, you know how I loved you. Sometimes I was afraid you might leave me, but I held on to you strongly. My dear, please come with me.’
The second wife expressed herself rather coldly. ‘Dear husband, your first wife refused to accompany you after your death. How can I follow you? You loved me only for your own selfish sake.’
Lying in his deathbed, he called his third wife, and asked her to follow him. The third wife replied, with tears in her eyes, ‘My dear, I pity you and I feel sad for myself. Therefore I shall accompany you to the graveyard. This is my last duty to you.’ The third wife thus also refused to follow him to death.
Three wives had refused to follow him after his death. Now he recalled that there was another wife, his fourth wife, for whom he didn’t care very much. He had treated her like a slave and had always showed much displeasure with her. He now thought that if he asked her to follow him to death, she certainly would say no.
But his loneliness and fear were so severe that he made the effort to ask her to accompany him to the other world. The fourth wife gladly accepted her husband’s request.
‘My dear husband,’ she said, ‘I will go with you. Whatever happens, I am determined to be with you forever. I cannot be separated from you.”
This is the story of ‘A Man and His Four Wives.’
Gautama Buddha concluded the story as follows:
‘Every man and woman has four wives or husbands. What do these wives signify?’
THE FIRST WIFE
The first ‘wife’ is our body. We love our body day and night. In the morning, we wash our face, put on clothing and shoes. We give food to our body. We take care of our body like the first wife in this story. But unfortunately, at the end of our life, the body, the first ‘wife’ cannot follow us to the next world. As it is stated in a commentary, ‘When the last breath leaves our body, the healthy color of the face is transformed, and we lose the appearance of radiant life. Our loved ones may gather around and lament, but to no avail. When such an event occurs, the body is sent into an open field and cremated, leaving only the white ashes.’ This is the destination of our body.
THE SECOND WIFE
What is the meaning of the second wife? The second ‘wife’ stands for our fortune, our material things, money, property, fame, position, and job that we worked hard to attain. We are attached to these material possessions. We are afraid to lose these material things and wish to possess much more. There is no limit. At the end of our life these things cannot follow us to death. Whatever fortune we have piled up, we must leave it. We came into this world with empty hands. During our life in this world, we have the illusion that we obtained a fortune. At death, our hands are empty. We can’t hold our fortune after our death, just as the second wife told her husband: ‘You hold me with your ego-centered selfishness. Now it is time to say goodbye.’
THE THIRD WIFE
What is meant by the third wife? Everyone has a third ‘wife’. This is the relationship of our parents, sister and brother, all relatives, friends, and society. They will go as far as the graveyard, with tears in their eyes. They are sympathetic and saddened…
Thus, we cannot depend on our physical body, our fortune, and our society. We are born alone and we die alone. No one will accompany us after our death.
THE FOURTH WIFE
Sakyamuni Buddha mentioned the fourth wife, who would accompany her husband after his death. What does that mean? The fourth ‘wife’ is our mind [or Alaya consciousness]. When we deeply observe and recognize that our minds are filled with anger, greed, and dissatisfaction, we are having a good look at our lives. The anger, greed, and dissatisfaction are karma, the law of causation.We cannot be separated from our own karma. As the fourth wife told her dying husband, ‘I will follow you wherever you go.’”
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The life of Sāriputta.

The life of Sāriputta

The life of Sāriputta

1. Sāriputta Thera. The chief disciple (aggasāvaka) of Gotama – Buddha. He is also called Upatissa, which was evidently his personal name (M.i.150). The commentators say that Upatissa was the name of his village and that he was the eldest son of the chief family in the village, but other accounts give his village as Nālaka. His father was the brahmin, Vanganta (DhA.ii.84), and his mother, Rūpasāri. It was because of his mother’s name that he came to be called Sāriputta. In Sanskrit texts his name occurs as Sāriputra, Sāliputra, Sārisuta, Sāradvatīputra. In the Apadāna (ii.480) he is also called Sārisambhava.

The name Upatissa is hardly ever mentioned in the books. He had three younger brothers –  Cunda, Upasena, and Revata (afterwards called Khadiravaniya) –  and three sisters –  Cālā, Upacālā and Sisūpacālā; all of whom joined the Order. DhA.ii.188; cf. Mtu.iii.50; for details of them see s.v.; mention is also made of an uncle of Sāriputta and of a nephew, both of whom he took to the Buddha, thereby rescuing them from false views (DhA.ii.230 2); Uparevata was his nephew (SA.iii.175).

The story of Sāriputta’s conversion and the account of his past lives, which prepared him for his eminent position as the Buddha’s Chief Disciple, have been given under Mahā Moggallāna. Sāriputta had a very quick intuition, and he became a sotāpanna immediately after hearing the first two lines of the stanza spoken by Assaji. After his attainment of sotāpatti, Kolita (Moggallāna) wished to go with him to Veluvana to see the Buddha, but Sāriputta, always grateful to his teachers, suggested that they should first seek their teacher, Sañjaya, to give him the good news and go with him to the Buddha. But Sañjaya refused to fall in with this plan. Moggallāna attained arahantship on the seventh day after his ordination, but it was not till a fortnight later that Sāriputta became an arahant. He was staying, at the time, with the Buddha, in the Sūkarakhatalena in Rājagaha, and he reached his goal as a result of hearing the Buddha preach the Vedānapariggaha Sutta to Dīghanakha. This account is summarized from DhA.i.73 ff.; AA.i.88 ff.; ThagA.ii.93 ff. Ap.i.15ff.; the story of their conversion is given at Vin.i.38ff.

In the assembly of monks and nuns, Sāriputta was declared by the Buddha foremost among those who possessed wisdom (etadaggam mahāpaññānam, A.i.23). He was considered by the Buddha as inferior only to himself in wisdom. SA.ii.45; his greatest exhibition of wisdom followed the Buddha’s descent from Tāvatimsa to the gates of Sankassa, when the Buddha asked questions of the assembled multitude, which none but Sāriputta could answer. But some questions were outside the range of any but a Buddha (DhA.iii.228 f.; cf. SNA.ii.570f.). Similarly knowledge of the thoughts and inclinations of people were beyond Sāriputta; only a Buddha possesses such knowledge (DhA.iii.426; J.i.182). Further, only a Buddha could find suitable subjects for meditation for everybody without error (SNA.i.18), and read their past births without limitation (SNA, ii.571).

The Buddha would frequently merely suggest a topic, and Sāriputta would preach a sermon on it in detail, and thereby win the Buddha’s approval. (See, e.g., M.i.13; iii.46, 55, 249). The Buddha is recorded as speaking high praise of him: “Wise art thou, Sāriputta, comprehensive and manifold thy wisdom, joyous and swift, sharp and fastidious. Even as the eldest son of a Cakkavatti king turns the Wheel as his father hath turned it, so dost thou rightly turn the Wheel Supreme of the Dhamma, even as I have turned it.” (S.i.191; cf. SN.vs.556 f., where the Buddha is asked by Sela, who is his general, and the Buddha replies that it is Sāriputta who turns the Wheel of the Law; also M.iii.29). He thus came to be called Dhammasenāpati, just as Ananda was called Dhammabhandāgārika. The Anupada Sutta is one long eulogy of Sāriputta by the Buddha. He is there held up as the supreme example of the perfect disciple, risen to mastery and perfection in noble virtue, noble concentration, noble perception, noble deliverance. M.iii.25ff. In the Mahāgosinga Sutta Sāriputta expresses his view that that monk is beat who is master of his heart and is not mastered by it. The Buddha explains that Sāriputta was stating his own nature (M.i.215 f.). The Buddha did not, however, hesitate to blame Sāriputta when necessary   e.g., the occasion when some novices, becoming noisy, were sent away by the Buddha, whose motive Sāriputta misunderstood (M.i.459). And again, when Sāriputta did not look after Rāhula properly, making it necessary for Rāhula to spend the whole night in the Buddha’s jakes (J.i.161f.).

In the Saccavibhanga Sutta (M.iii.248) he is compared to a mother teacher, while Moggallāna is like a child’s wet nurse; Sāriputta trains in the fruits of conversion, Moggallāna trains in the highest good. In the Pindapāta pārisuddhi Sutta (M.iii.294f) the Buddha commends Sāriputta for the aloofness of his life and instructs him in the value of reflection. Other instances are given of the Buddha instructing and examining him on various topics   e.g., on bhūtam (“what has come to be”) (S.ii.47f), on the five indriyas, (S.v.220f., 225f., 233f ) and on sotāpatti. S.v.347; we find the Buddha also instructing him on the cultivation of tranquillity (A.i.65); on the destruction of “I” and “mine” (A.i.133); the reasons for failure and success in enterprises (A.ii.81f.); the four ways of acquiring personality (attabhāva) (A.ii.159); the methods of exhortation (A.iii.198); the acquisition of joy that comes through seclusion (A.iii.207); the noble training for the layman (211f.); six things that bring spiritual progress to a monk (424f.); seven similar things (A.iv.30); the seven grounds for praising a monk (35); the things and persons a monk should revere (120f.); the eight attributes of a monk free from the cankers (223 f.); the nine persons who, although they die with an attached remainder for rebirth, are yet free from birth in hell among animals and among petas (379 f.); and the ten powers of a monk who has destroyed the cankers (A.v.174 f.).

We also find instances of Sāriputta questioning his colleagues, or being questioned by them, on various topics. Thus he is questioned by Mahā Kotthita on kamma (S.ii.112 f.); and on yoniso manasikāra (progressive discipline, S.iii.176 f.); on avijjā and vijjā (ibid., 172 f.); on the fetters of sense perception (S.iv.162 f.); on certain questions pronounced by the Buddha as indeterminate (ibid., 384 f.); on whether anything is left remaining after the passionless ending of the six spheres of contact (A.ii.161); and on the purpose for which monks lead the brahmacariya under the Buddha (A.iv.382). The Mahāvedalla Sutta (M.i.292 ff.) records a long discourse preached by Sāriputta to Mahā Kotthita. He is mentioned as questioning Mahā Kassapa on the terms ātāpī and ottāpī (S.ii.195f.), and Anuruddha on sekha (S.v.174 f., 298f.). On another occasion, Anuruddha tells Sāriputta of his power of seeing the thousand fold world system, his unshaken energy, and his untroubled mindfulness. Sāriputta tells him that his deva sight is mere conceit, his claims to energy conceit, and his mindfulness just worrying, and exhorts him to abandon thoughts of them all. Anuruddha follows his advice and becomes an arahant. A.i.281f.

Moggallāna asks Sāriputta regarding the “undefiled” (their conversation forms the Anangana Sutta, M.i.25 ff.), and, at the conclusion of the Gulissāni Sutta, inquires whether the states of consciousness mentioned in that sutta were incumbent only on monks from the wilds or also on those from the villages (M.i.472f.). Sāriputta questions Upavāna regarding the bojjhangā (S.v.76), and is questioned by Ananda regarding sotāpatti (S.v.346, 362) as regards the reason why some beings are set free in this very life while others are not (A.ii.167), and on the winning of perfect concentration (A.v.8, 320). Ananda also questions Sāriputta (A.iii.201f.) on the speedy knowledge of aptness in things (kusaladhammesu khippanisanti), and, again, on how a monk may learn new doctrines and retain old ones without confusion (A.iii.361). In both these cases Sāriputta asks Ananda to answer the questions himself, and, at the end of his discourse, praises him. The Rathavinīta Sutta (M.i.145 ff.) records a conversation between Sāriputta and Punna Mantānīputta, for whom he had the greatest respect, after hearing the Buddha’s eulogy of him. Sāriputta had given instructions that he should be told as soon as Punna came to Sāvatthi and took the first opportunity of seeing him. Among others who held discussions with Sāriputta are mentioned Samiddhi (A.iv.385), Yamaka (S.iii.109f.), Candikāputta (A.iv.403), and Laludāyi (A.iv.414).

Among laymen who had discussions with Sāriputta are Atula (DhA.iii.327), Nakulapitā (S.iii.2f.) and Dhānañjāni (M.ii.186); Sīvalī (immediately after his birth; J.i.408), also the Paribbājakas, Jambukhādaka (S.iv.251f.), Sāmandaka (S.iv.261 f.; A.v.120), and Pasūra (SNA.ii.538), and the female Paribbājakas Saccā, Lolā, Avavādakā and Patācārā (J.iii.1), and Kundalakesī (DhA.ii.223f.). He is also said to have visited the Paribbājakas in order to hold discussion with them (A.iv.378); see also S.iii.238f., where a Paribbājaka consults him on modes of eating.

The care of the Sangha and the protection of its members’ integrity was Sāriputta’s especial concern by virtue of his position as the Buddha’s Chief Disciple. Thus we find him being sent with Moggallāna to bring back the monks who had seceded with Devadatta. His admonitions to the monks sometimes made him unpopular   e.g., in the case of the Assaji Punaabbasukā, the Chabbaggiyā (who singled him out for special venom) and Kokālika (See Channa, who reviled both Sāriputta and Moggallāna, DhA.ii.110 f.). When Channa declared his intention of committing suicide, Sāriputta attempted to dissuade him, but without success (S.iv.55ff.; see also the Channovāda Sutta). Monks sought his advice in their difficulties. (See, e.g., S.iv.103, where a monk reports to him that a colleague has returned to the household life, and asks what he is to do about it). He was greatly perturbed by the dissensions of the monks of Kosambī, and consulted the Buddha, at length, as to what he could do about it (Vin.i.354).  He was meticulous about rules laid down by the Buddha. Thus a rule had been laid down that one monk could ordain only one samanera, and when a boy was sent to him for ordination from a family which had been of great service to him, Sāriputta refused the request of the parents till the Buddha had rescinded the rule (Vin.i.83). Another rule forbade monks to eat garlic (lasuna), and when Sāriputta lay ill and knew he could be cured by garlic, even then he refused to eat them till permission was given by the Buddha for him to do so (Vin.ii.140). The Dhammapada Commentary (Vin.ii.140f) describes how, at the monastery in which Sāriputta lived, when the other monks had gone for alms, he made the round of the entire building, sweeping the un-swept places, filling empty vessels with water, arranging furniture, etc., lest heretics, coming to the monastery, should say: “Behold the residences of Gotama’s pupils.” But even then he did not escape censure from his critics. A story is told (DhA.iv.184f) of how he was once charged with greed, and the Buddha himself had to explain to the monks that Sāriputta was blameless. While Sāriputta was severe in the case of those who failed to follow the Buddha’s discipline, he did not hesitate to rejoice with his fellow monks in their successes. Thus we find him congratulating Moggallāna on the joy he obtained from his iddhi powers, and praising his great attainments (praise which evoked equally generous counter praise), (S.ii.275 f ) and eulogising Anuruddha on his perfected discipline won through the practice of the four satipatthānas (S.v.301f). It was the great encouragement given by Sāriputta to Samitigutta (q.v.), when the latter lay ill with leprosy in the infirmary, which helped him to become an arahant. It was evidently the custom of Sāriputta to visit sick monks, as did the Buddha himself (ThagA.i.176). So great was Sāriputta’s desire to encourage and recognize merit in his colleagues that he once went about praising Devadatta’s iddhi powers, which made it difficult for him when later he had to proclaim, at the bidding of the Sangha, Devadatta’s evil nature (Vin.ii.189).

Several instances are given (E.g., S.ii.274; v.70; A.i.63; ii.160; iii.186, 190, 196, 200, 292, 340; iv.325, 328, 365; v.94, 102, 123, 315, 356f) of Sāriputta instructing the monks and preaching to them of his own accord on various topics –  apart from the preaching of the well known suttas assigned to him. Sometimes these suttas were supplementary to the Buddha’s own discourses (E.g., M.i.13, 24, 184, 469). Among the most famous of Sāriputta’s discourses are the Dasuttara and the Sangīti Suttas (q.v.). Though Sāriputta was friendly with all the eminent monks surrounding the Buddha, there was very special affection between him and Ananda and also Moggallāna. We are told that this was because Amanda was the Buddha’s special attendant, a duty which Sāriputta would have been glad to undertake For details of this see Mahā Moggallāna, Ananda. Ananda himself had the highest regard and affection for Sāriputta. It is recorded in the Samyutta Nikāya (S.i.63) that once, when the Buddha asked Ananda, “Do you also, Ananda, approve of our Sāriputta?” Amanda replied, “Who, Sir, that is not childish or corrupt or stupid or of perverted mind, will not approve of him? Wise is he, his wisdom comprehensive and joyous and swift, sharp and fastidious. Small is he in his desires and contented; loving seclusion and detachment, of rampant energy. A preacher is he, accepting advice, a critic, a scourge of evil.”

Sāriputta was specially attached, also, to Rāhula, the Buddha’s son, who was entrusted to Sāriputta for ordination. Mention is made of a special sutta in the Majjhima Nikāya, (the Mahā Rāhulovāda Sutta; M.i.421f ) in which he urges Rāhula to practise the study of breathing. The special regard which Sāriputta had for the Buddha and Rāhula extended also to Rāhulamātā, for we find that when she was suffering from flatulence. Rāhula consulted Sāriputta, who obtained for her some mango juice, a known remedy for the disease. (J.ii.392f) On another occasion (J.ii.433) he obtained from Pasenadi rice mixed with ghee and with red fish for flavouring when Rāhulamātā suffered from some stomach trouble. Among laymen Sāriputta had special regard for Anāthapindika; when the latter lay ill he sent for Sāriputta, who visited him with Ananda and preached to him the Anāthapindikovāda Sutta. At the end of the discourse Anāthapindika said he had never before heard such a homily. Sāriputta said they were reserved for monks only, but Anāthapindika asked that they could be given to the laity and to young men of undimmed vision. Anāthapindika died soon after and was reborn in Tusita. M.iii.258 ff.; cf. S.v.380, which probably refers to an earlier illness of Anāthapindika. He recovered immediately after the preaching of Sāriputta’s sermon, and served Sāriputta with rice from his own cooking pot.

Sāriputta also, evidently, had great esteem for the householder Citta, for we are told (DhA.ii.74) that he once paid a special visit to Macchikāsanda to see him.

Several incidents are related in the books showing the exemplary qualities possessed by Sāriputta   e.g., the stories of Tambadāthika, Punna and his wife, the poor woman in the Kundakakucchisindhava Jātaka and Losaka Tissa (q.v.). These show his great compassion for the poor and his eagerness to help them. Reference has already been made to his first teacher, Sañjaya, whom he tried, but failed, to convert to the Buddha’s faith. His second teacher was Assaji. It is said that every night on going to bed he would do obeisance to the quarter in which he knew Assaji to be and would sleep with his head in that direction. DhA.iv.150 f.; cf. SNA.i.328. If Assaji were in the same vihāra, Sāriputta would visit him immediately after visiting the Buddha. It was in connection with this that the Dhamma Sutta (q.v.) was preached.

The stories of the Sāmaneras Sukha and Pandita, and of the monk Rādhā, also show his gratitude towards any who had shown him favour (See also Vin.i.55 f). His extreme affection for and gratitude to the Buddha are shown in the Sampasādanīya Sutta (q.v.). That Sāriputta possessed great patience is shown by the story (DhA.iv.146f) of the brahmin who, to test his patience, struck him as he entered the city for alms. But when he was wrongly accused and found it necessary to vindicate his good name, he did not hesitate to proclaim his innocence at great length and to declare his pre eminence in virtue. (See, e.g., his “lion’s roar” at A.iv.373ff). Another characteristic of Sāriputta was his readiness to take instruction from others, however modest. Thus one story relates how, in absent mindedness, he let the fold of his robe hang down. A novice said, “Sir, the robe should be draped around you,” and Sāriputta agreed, saying, “Good, you have done well to point it out to me,” and going a little way, he draped the robe round him (ThagA.ii.116). A quaint story is told (Ud.iv.4) of a Yakkha who, going through the air at night, saw Sāriputta wrapt in meditation, his head newly shaved. The sight of the shining head was a great temptation to the Yakkha, and, in spite of his companion’s warning, he dealt a blow on the Thera’s head. The blow was said to have been hard enough to shatter a mountain, but Sāriputta suffered only a slight headache afterwards.

Mention is made of two occasions on which Sāriputta fell ill. Once he had fever and was cured by lotus stalks which Moggallāna obtained for him from the Mandākinī Lake (Vin.i.214). On the other occasion he had stomach trouble, which was again cured by Moggallāna giving him garlic (lasuna), to eat which the rule regarding the use of garlic had to be rescinded by the Buddha (Vin.ii.140).

Sāriputta was fond of meal cakes (pitthakhajjaka), but finding that they tended to make him greedy he made a vow never to eat them (J.i.310).

Sāriputta died some months before the Buddha. It is true that the account of the Buddha’s death in the Mahā Parinibbāna Sutta ignores all reference to Sāriputta, though it does introduce him (D.ii.81 ff ) shortly before as uttering his “lion’s roar” (sīhanāda), his great confession of faith in the Buddha, which, in the commentarial account, he made when he took leave of the Buddha to die. The Samyutta Nikāya (S.v.161) records that he died at Nālagāmaka (the place of his birth), and gives an eulogy of him pronounced by the Buddha after his death (S.v.163f).

There is no need to doubt the authenticity of this account. It merely states that when Sāriputta was at Nālagāmaka he was afflicted with a sore disease. His brother, Cunda Samanuddesa, was attending on him when he died. His body was cremated, and Cunda took the relics to Sāvatthi with Sāriputta’s begging bowl and outer robe. The relics were wrapped in his water-strainer. Cunda first broke the news to Ananda, who confessed that when he heard it his mind was confused and his body felt as though drugged. Cf. Thag.vs.1034; see also the eulogy of Sāriputta by Vangīsa during his lifetime (Thag.1231 3). Hiouen Thsang saw the stūpa erected over the relics of Sāriputta in the town of Kālapināka (Beal, op. cit., ii.177).

Together they sought the Buddha and told him of the event, and the Buddha pointed out to them the impermanence of all things.

The Commentaries give more details. The Buddha returned to Sāvatthi after his last vassa in Beluvagāma. Sāriputta sought him there, and, realizing that his death would come in seven days, he decided to visit his mother, for she, though the mother of seven arahants, had no faith in the Sangha. [This was because all her children joined the Order and left her desolate in spite of the forty crores of wealth which lay in the house. It is said (DhA.iv.164f.) that when Sāriputta had gone home on a previous occasion, she abused both him and his companions roundly. Rāhula was also in the company.] He therefore asked his brother, Cunda, to prepare for the journey to Nālagāmaka with five hundred others, and then took leave of the Buddha after performing various miracles and declaring his faith in the Buddha and uttering his “lion’s roar.” A large concourse followed him to the gates of Sāvatthi, and there he addressed them and bade them stay behind. In seven days he reached Nālaka, where he wais met by his nephew, Uparevata, outside the gates. Him he sent on to warn his mother of his arrival with a large number of people. She, thinking that he had once more returned to the lay life, made all preparations to welcome him and his companions. Sāriputta took up his abode in the room in which he was born (jātovaraka). There he was afflicted with dysentery. His mother, unaware of this and sulking because she found he was still a monk, remained in her room. The Four Regent Gods and Sakka and Mahā Brahmā waited upon him. She saw them, and having found out who they were, went to her son’s room. There she asked him if he were really greater than all these deities, and, when he replied that it was so, she reflected on the greatness of her son and her whole body was suffused with joy. Sāriputta then preached to her, and she became a sotāpanna. Feeling that he had paid his debt to his mother, he sent Cunda to fetch the monks, and, on their arrival, he sat up with Cunda’s help and asked if he had offended them in any way during the forty four years of his life as a monk. On receiving their assurance that he had been entirely blameless, he wiped his lips with his robe and lay down, and, after passing through various trances, died at break of dawn.

His mother made all arrangements for the funeral, and Vissakamma assisted in the ceremony. When the cremation was over, Anuruddha extinguished the flames with perfumed water, and Cunda gathered together the relics. This account is summarized from SA.iii.172ff.; similar accounts are found at DA.ii.549f, etc. Sāriputta’s death is also referred to at J.i.391.

Among those who came to pay honour to the pyre was the goddess Revatī (q.v.). Sāriputta died on the full moon day of Kattika (October to November) preceding the Buddha’s death, and Moggallāna died a fortnight later. SA.iii.181; J.i.391; both Sāriputta and Moggallāna were older than the Buddha because they were born “anuppanne yeva hi Buddhe” (DhA.i.73).

Sāriputta had many pupils, some of whom have already been mentioned. Among others were Kosiya, Kandhadinna, Cullasārī, Vanavāsika Tissa, Sankicca (q.v.), and Sarabhū, who brought to Ceylon the Buddha’s collar bone, which he deposited in the Mahiyangana-cetiya (Mhv.i.37f). Sāriputta’s brother, Upavāna, predeceased him, and Sāriputta was with him when he died of snake bite at Sappasondikapabbāra (S.iv.40f).

Sāriputta’s special proficiency was in the Abhidhamma. It is said (DhSA.16f., DA.i.15, where it is said that at the end of the First Recital the Abhidhamma was given in charge of five hundred arahants, Sāriputta being already dead) that when preaching the Abhidhamma, to the gods of Tāvatimsa, the Buddha would visit Anotatta every day, leaving a nimitta Buddha, on Sakka’s throne to continue the preaching. After having bathed in the lake he would take his midday rest. During this time Sāriputta would visit him and learn from the Buddha all that had been preached of the Abhidhamma during the previous day. Having thus learnt the Abhidhamma, Sāriputta taught it to his five hundred pupils. Their acquirement of the seven books of the Abhidhamma coincided with the conclusion of the Buddha’s sermon in Tāvatimsa. Thus the textual order of the Abhidhamma originated with Sāriputta, and the numerical series was determined by him.

Sāriputta is identified with various characters in numerous Jātakas. Thus he was

Canda-kumāra in the Devadhamma,
Lakkhana in the Lakkhana,
the knight in the Bhojājānīya,
the monkey in the Tittira,
the snake in the Visavanta and Saccankira,
the tree sprite in the Sīlavanāga,
the brahmin youth in the Mahāsupina,
the chief disciple in the Parosahassa,
the Jhānasodhana and the Candābha,
the king of Benares in the Dummedha,
the good ascetic in the Godha (No.138) and the Romaka,
the charioteer of the king of Benares in the Rājovāda,
the father-elephant in the Alīnacitta,
the teacher in the Susīma, the Cūla Nandiya, the Sīlavīmamsana and the Mahādhammapāla,
the merchant in the Gijjha (No.164),
a goose in the Catumatta,
the Nāga king in the Jarudapāna and the Sīlavimamasa,
the woodpecker in the Kurungamiga,
the thoroughbred in the Kundakakucchisindhava,
the lion in the Vyaggha, Tittira (No. 438) and Vannāroha,
the rich man in the Kurudhamma,
the ascetic Jotirasa in the Abbhantara,
Sumukha in the Supatta,
Nandisena in the Cullakalinga,
Sayha in the Sayha,
the spirit of the Bodhi tree in the Pucimanda,
the commander in chief in the Khantivādī,
the hunter in the Mamsa,
a deity in the Kakkāru,
Nārada in the Kesava,
the brahmin in the Kārandiya and Nandiyamiga,
the Candāla in the Setaketu,
the horse in the Kharapatta,
Pukkasa in the Dasannaka,
the sprite in the Sattubhasta and the Mahāpaduma,
the roc bird in the Kotisimbali,
the pupil in the Atthasadda,
Sālissara in the Indriya (No. 423) and the Sarabhanga,
Ani Mandavya in the Kanhadīpāyana,
Canda in the Bilārikosiya,
the senior pupil in the Mahāmangala,
Vāsudeva in the Ghata,
Lakkhana in the Dasaratha,
Uposatha in the Samvara,
the northern deity in the Samuddavānija,
the second goose in the Javanahamsa,
the chaplain in the Sarabhamiga and the Bhikkhāparampara,
the osprey in the Mahākukkusa,
one of the brothers in the Bhisa,
the snake in the Pañcūposatha,
the Nāga king in the Mahāvānija,
the king in the Rohantamiga, and the Hamsa (No. 502),
Rakkhita in the Somanassa,
Uggasena in the Campeyya,
Assapāla in the Hatthipāla,
the ascetic in the Jayadissa,
Sañjaya in the Sambhava,
the Nāga king in the Pandara,
Alāra in the Sankhapāla,
the elder son in the Cullasutosoma,
Ahipāraka in the Ummadantī,
Manoja in the Sonananda,
the king in the Cullahamsa and the Mahāhammsa,
Nārada in the Sudhābhojana,
the Kunāla and the Mahājanaka,
Kālahatthi in the Mahāsutasoma,
the charioteer in the Mūgapakkha,
Suriyakumāra in the Khandapāla,
Sudassana in the Bhūridatta,
Vijaya in the Mahānāradakassapa,
Varuna in the Vidhurapandita,
Cūlanī in the Mahāummagga and
the ascetic Accuta in the Vessantara.